In the same way you describe people and feelings. You want the place to be seen in the reader’s mind as vividly as if they where there. It also has to do with “show don’t tell” that is so desirable for a good author. You want your readers to feel it, touch it, see it, taste it and smell it. Every time you can use a combination of the senses or all of them in your book, you have the best description ever.
Here are some ideas that will help inspire your own:
The sea of golden waves spread before my eyes while the breeze caressed it back and forth. I knew we had been blessed with a great crop this year. (wheat)
The rumble threatened to split the earth under our feet and the dust settled on my eyelashes. (earthquake, mine accident)
The tormented waves sent their salt-water hands to slap my ship as if that would calm her pain. (stormy sea)
The furious rain fell like wet knives over my cold body.
The cracked soil thirsted for water and relief from the sun. (desert)
The heat was magnified with fury over the massive white rocks, bright enough to blind us.
The majestic green trees spotted the forest with their beautiful leaves.
The velvety darkness seemed the perfect bed for the diamonds that lay in many intricate forms while they glistened in the night. (night sky)
Now go, and happy writings to you